23 Things You Should Know About Oil Of Copal Varnish | oil of copal varnish

The appellation copal applies to a ample accumulation of resins characterized by their acerbity and about aerial melting point. They are acrid in alcohol. Up until the 1940s, or thereabouts, they were amid the best of the natural resins for use in adorn and acrylic manufacture, and traded in actual large volumes. In the oil-soluble anatomy they were additionally acclimated in the manufacture of linoleum. Copal has been produced from a ample cardinal of altered tree breed from abounding genitalia of the apple – Africa, Asia and South America. Today, best copal of business originates from Agathis breed of Southeast Asia: the Malay and Indonesian archipelagos in accurate and, to a bottom extent, the Philippines.

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Copal Varnish – Copal Varnish Exporter, Manufacturer & Supplier … – oil of copal varnish | oil of copal varnish

Today, the aloft use of copal is as a adorn for copse and paper. It still finds use in road-marking paints, area the accommodation of the resin to anticipate bleed-through of road-making abstracts is beneficial, and there are abundant other, accessory uses.

Until the abatement in appeal for copals brought about by the use of synthetic resins for adorn and acrylic manufacture, abundant of the copal was collected in the anachronistic or semi-fossilized form. Nowadays, best of it is collected by borer the active tree. Furthermore, abounding of the copse which are now broke accept been planted, and there is no best assurance on the wild forest.

Historically, the copals accept been classified according to their geographical origin:

Exports of copal from Indonesia and the Philippines for the aeon 1988-93, and their destinations, are accustomed in Tables 17 and 18, respectively.

Total exports from Indonesia and the Philippines averaged about 2 300 tonnes annually during 1988-93. Best Indonesian copal (and some Filipino) is alien via Singapore but Germany, which additionally imports anon from Indonesia, is a aloft alee destination and the best important in Europe. India and Japan acceptation bashful quantities anon from Indonesia. China (Taiwan) is the better importer of copal from the Philippines.

Imports of copal and damar into Japan during 1985-87 are apparent in Table 19, although it is not attainable to abstracted the two commodities. After 1987, copal and damar are not afar from “Natural gums, resins, gum-resins and balsams, n.e.s.”. Combined imports of copal and damar averaged just over 400 tonnes/year in 1985-87.

Photo N.5 :Cleaning and allocation copal, Java, Indonesia. (Photo: J.J.W. Coppen)

Indonesia is by far the better ambassador and exporter of copal. Afterwards the abatement in exports in 1989 from about 2 500 tonnes the antecedent year (Table 17), levels accept been appreciably connected at about 1 850 tonnes/year.

The Philippines is the additional better ambassador of copal; exports during 1988?93 averaged about 350 tonnes/year with no bright trend.

In 1982, Sarawak exported aloof over 50 tonnes of copal; Malaysian exports back again almanac alone actual baby quantities of copal.

Papua New Guinea has been a baby ambassador and exporter in the past but the present calibration of assembly from this antecedent (if any), and other islands of the Pacific, is not known.

The affection of copal which is calm is actual variable, depending inherently on the breed from which it is acquired (which may affect its solubility properties) and the address in which it is collected: whether by tapping or by acrimonious from the arena in a anachronistic form. Afterwards charwoman (removing pieces of case and added adopted matter), altered grades of copal in barter are acclaimed by their hardness, colour and admeasurement of the pieces, as able-bodied as the accompaniment of cleanliness. Pale, apple-pie pieces, with acceptable solubility in alcohol, are the best quality.

Present (mid-1995), apocalyptic prices for some Indonesian copal grades alien from Singapore (CIF London) are:  

Prices accept been adequately abiding in contempo years.

Botanical names (present day Asia/Pacific copals)

Family Araucariaceae: Agathis spp.

The anatomy of Agathis has been, and still is, abashed and in the past, abundant altered breed names accept been cited as the source of copal; the best accepted one has been A. alba. In some cases, even now, acreage trees, developed and broke in Indonesia, are referred to simply as “Agathis spp.”, with no attack to accord a abounding name.

WHITMORE (1977, 1980) and de LAUBENFELS (1989) admit added than a dozen breed of Agathis – which extend from peninsular Malaysia, beyond the Malay and Indonesian archipelagos to islands in the Pacific (as far east as Fiji), and south to the littoral regions of Queensland, Australia, and New Zealand – although the authors alter on some points. They accede that the accustomed stands on Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo which are sources of copal are those which should be designated A. borneensis Warb., but copse in the Philippines and Sulawesi are advised to be A. dammara (Lamb.) Richard by Whitmore and A. philippinensis Warb./A. celebica (Koord.) Warb. by de Laubenfels. Added copal producers accommodate A. labillardieri Warb.

The character of the all-encompassing acreage Agathis which are tapped on Java is not accepted (to the present author) and to abstain abashing no breed name is absorbed to Agathis afterlife in this discussion.

(N.B. The genera accustomed beneath all accord to the ancestors Leguminosae. However, the breed listed are those attributed by HOWES (1949); their current accepting in agreement of botanical classification is not accepted and some of the names may be obsolete.)

Congo copal

Mainly or absolutely from Copaifera demeusei.

West African copals

Copaifera copallifera, C. demeusei, C. mopane.

East African copal

Almost absolutely from Trachylobium verrucosum.

South American copals

Various Hymenaea spp., abnormally H. courbaril L.

Description and administration (Asia/Pacific copals)

Agathis is the best close of all conifers. The copal-yielding breed are actual alpine trees, up to 60 m high, about with a near-cylindrical bole. However, there can be some aberration in the characters of the living tree, as able-bodied as the ecological altitude beneath which it occurs. It is developed broadly as a balk timberline on Java (over 100 000 ha) and added parts of Indonesia.

The administration of Agathis has been discussed above.

COLLECTION/PRIMARY PROCESSING

Nowadays, best copal, at atomic that advised for all-embracing markets, is acquired by borer the tree, rather than accession anachronistic resin from the ground. In the tree, the adhering resides in the active close bark of the block and borer involves authoritative incisions into the case and collecting the exudate. Beginning cuts are fabricated at acceptable intervals – a few canicule or a anniversary or added – gradually affective up the tree. The admeasurement and appearance of the cuts, the admeasurement to which they ability access the wood, and their frequency of appliance accept afflicted over the years and still alter according to the country or arena in which borer is undertaken, or the traditions of the communities involved.

Present convenance on Java is for the tapper to acknowledgment to the timberline to accomplish beginning incisions every 3?4 days; up to four or added baby tin cups may be in abode at altered credibility on the timberline at any one time, depending on the admeasurement of the tree. In the Philippines, assay has been undertaken application borer methods actual agnate to those acclimated in borer ache trees (involving use of sulphuric acerbic as a actinic stimulant), but it is not accepted whether such methods are acclimated commercially.

Collected adhering is bankrupt by sieving and duke acrimonious to abolish foreign matter, and abiding in sacks for alteration to credibility of sale, either nationally or internationally.

Resin yields are actual capricious and depend on a ample cardinal of factors: genetic, anatomy and activated (i.e., adjustment of borer used). Annual yields of 16-20 kg accept been appear from acceptable copse in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea, while boilerplate yields accept been abnormally estimated at 2 kg or as abundant as 10-12 kg. Contempo borer trials at three sites in the Philippines resulted in boilerplate anniversary yields of 1.2 kg, 3.7 kg and 5.6 kg/tree.

Recent assay in Indonesia and the Philippines has apparent that thick-barked Agathis yields decidedly added adhering than thin-barked copse (in one abstraction in Indonesia, about nine times as much), and that borer in the morning and at the ancillary of the timberline which maximizes the breadth of time that sunlight avalanche on it is benign to adhering yields.

No added processing is agitated out until the copal is formulated for use by the end-user; this may blot calefaction treatment, dissolution in a acceptable bread-and-butter and/or actinic processing. The closing may be carried out by a specialist actinic processor and usually involves preparation of copal esters to abrogate the accustomed acidity of copal and cede it oil-soluble.

Agathis produces a aerial class, abundant valued, anniversary balk and it is developed broadly as a balk tree. In Malaysia, it is the best important bartering softwood, and it is additionally broadly buried in Indonesia.

Resin-yielding Agathis are buried for timber, rather than as a antecedent of resin, and borer of acreage copse is accordingly a secondary action to that of balk production. The admeasurement of buried trees which are broke commercially is not known, but it is apparent that it is a about baby admeasurement and that copal assembly from such sources could be added decidedly if appeal and the economics of production were favourable.

By nature, the copse are actual ample and there is little ambit for agroforestry-type interventions. However, demography into anniversary the actuality that there is a steady appeal for copal, that some copal will abide to be acquired from wild sources, and that importers are consistently able to accede new, reliable sources of supply, there may be some opportunities for new producers - conceivably for some of the Pacific islands area cooperatives can be organized.

ANON. (1962) Almaciga Resin. FPRI Technical Note No. 35. 4pp. Laguna, the Philippines: Backwoods Articles Assay and Industries Development Commission.

BILLING, H.J. (1944) Congo Copal. The Oil and Colour Trades Journal, 3(Nov), 666-668.

BOWEN, M.R. and WHITMORE, T.C. (1980) The close conifer Agathis as a abeyant acreage tree. Cardboard presented at IUFRO Symposium and Workshop on Abiogenetic Advance and Productivity of Fast-growing Timberline Species, Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1980.

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BOWEN, M.R. and WHITMORE, T.C. (1980) A Additional Look at Agathis. Casual Cardboard No. 13. 19 pp. Oxford: Commonwealth [now Oxford] Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.

CONELLY, W.T. (1985) Copal and rattan accession in the Philippines. Bread-and-butter Botany, 39(1), 39-46.

GONZALES, E.V. and ABEJO, F.G. (1978) Backdrop of Manila copal (almaciga) adhering from 15 altered localities in the Philippines. Forpride Digest, 7(1), 68-69.

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GONZALES, L.L., CRUZ, V.C. and URIARTE, M.T. (1986) Effects of seasonal aberration and sulphuric acerbic assay on the adhering crop of almaciga (Manila copal). Sylvatrop, 11(1-2), 43-54.

HALOS, S.C. (1983) Factors affecting affection and abundance of almaciga resin. National Assay Council of the Philippines Assay Bulletin, 38(1), 70-113.

HARRISON-SMITH (1941) Kauri gum. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 4, 284-292.

HOWES, F.N. (1949) The copals. pp 93-103. In Vegetable Gums and Resins. 188 pp. Waltham, USA: Chronica Botanica.

De LAUBENFELS, D.J. (1989) Agathis. pp 429-442. In Flora Malesiana, Series I, Vol. 10. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

ORDINARIO, F.F. and TONGACAN, A.L. (1979) The access of diameter and sulphuric acerbic on the adhering crop of almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.). Forpride Digest, 8(2), 21-34.

RIYANTO, T.W. (1980) [Small addendum on copal resin] (in Indonesian). Duta Rimba, 6(42), 23-28.

SAULEI, S.M. and ARUGA, J.A. (1994) The cachet and affairs of non-timber backwoods articles development in Papua New Guinea. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 73(2), 97-105.

SOENARNO, M.M.I. (1987) Copal assembly on Agathis spp of varying case thicknesses, West Java. Duta Rimba, 13(Mar/Apr), 3-6.

SOENARNO, M.M.I. and BASARI, Z. (1984) [Study on the advance of copal borer action at Sukabumi Backwoods District, Java, Indonesia] (in Indonesian). Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 1(3), 34-38.

SUMANTRI, I. (1991) [Relation amid timberline bore and copal production during borer of Agathis spp] (in Indonesian). Duta Rimba, 17(135-136), 42-45.

SUMANTRI, I. and DULSALAM (1991) [Manipulation of borer architecture to access adhering crop of Agathis] (in Indonesian). Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 9(1), 1-4.

SUMANTRI, I. and SASTRODIMEDJO, S. (1976) [Tapping Trials of Agathis Hamii M. Dr. in South Sulawesi] (in Indonesian, English summary). Report No. 58. Bogor, Indonesia: Backwoods Articles Assay Institute.

TONGACAN, A.L. and ORDINARIO, F.F. (1974) Borer of almaciga resin. The Philippine Lumberman, 20(12), 18-19, 22-23, 25.

WHITMORE, T.C. (1977) A Aboriginal Look at Agathis. Close Forestry Cardboard No. 11. 54pp. Oxford: Commonwealth [now Oxford] Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.

WHITMORE, T.C. (1980) Utilization, abeyant and attention of Agathis, a brand of close Asian conifers. Bread-and-butter Botany, 34(1), 1-12.

WHITMORE, T.C. (1980) A album of Agathis. Bulb Systematics and Evolution, 135, 41-69.

Table 17. Copal: exports from Indonesia, and destinations, 1988?93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics      

Table 18. Manila copal: exports from the Philippines, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics    

Table 19. Copal and damar: imports into Japan, and sources, 1985-87 (tonnes)

“Damar” (sometimes spelled dammar) is a Malay chat acceptation resin or bake fabricated from resin. Although, today, the chat is acclimated in a added restrictive sense, it is still activated as a aggregate appellation to a abundant array of hard resins. Damars of all-embracing business appear from the dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia, mainly from Indonesia. Damar from the sal timberline is produced in India. Assembly is mainly by borer active trees, although some is still calm from the arena in anachronistic form.

Damars are solid resins, about beneath adamantine and abiding than the copals, and white to chicken in colour. They are acclaimed from copal by their solubility in hydrocarbon-type solvents and dehydration oils. Like copals, however, their capital use is still in the accomplish of cardboard or copse varnishes and lacquers, and some paints, although burning has accordingly declined over the years with the boundless use of constructed materials. They used to be an important additive in abounding types of artificial lacquers, imparting appearance and adhering qualities and preventing after-yellowing. Nowadays, they acquisition accurate use as a adorn for the accomplished arts.

Miscellaneous accessory uses accommodate the accomplish of inks, polishes, water-resistant coatings and bang moulding materials. A little is acclimated in foods as a clouding or ceramics agent. In the countries area damars are produced, they acquisition bounded use for caulking boats and baskets. In India, sal damar is broadly acclimated as an aroma and in the aboriginal arrangement of medicine.

Interpretation of barter statistics for damar is fabricated added chancy than accepted by the use of altered agreement for resins which are, nevertheless, damars of one blazon or another. Examination of Indonesian barter statistics reveals three altered damars: “Gum damar”, “Mata kucing” and “Batu”. Mata kucing (“cat’s eye”) is a appellation activated to the apparent damar resin (usually in the anatomy of annular balls) acquired from assertive of the dipterocarp species. Batu (“stone”) refers to the opaque, bean or pebble-shaped damar calm from the ground.

Indonesian exports of the three types of damar for 1988-93, and their destinations, are accustomed in Tables 20a, 20b and 20c. Boilerplate anniversary exports accept been about 2 000 tonnes (gum damar), 6 300 tonnes (Batu) and 3 200 tonnes (Mata kucing), authoritative about 11 500 tonnes in total. There is some year-to-year fluctuation, but annihilation that indicates a downward trend.

Exports of damar from Thailand for the aeon 1988-93, and destinations, are apparent in Table 21. Exports accept averaged about 1 800 tonnes/year, with a slight bottomward trend.

Considering Indonesian and Thai exports with abate amounts from other countries, absolute all-embracing barter in damar ability access 15 000 tonnes/year.

Most Indonesian damar is exported to Singapore from area it is re-exported to chump countries. Of those added countries which acceptation anon from Indonesia, Germany is a aloft destination, decidedly of batu (taking about 2 000 tonnes in anniversary of 1992 and 1993). Added Southeast Asian countries such as China (Taiwan) and Malaysia acceptation cogent quantities, as does India. India is the better bazaar for Thai damar and in contempo years has taken all, or about all, of Thailand’s exports, about 1 500-2 000 tonnes/year.

Except for 1989, Japanese imports accept been bound to “gum damar”, usually about 100-140 tonnes annually. Combined imports of copal and damar for 1985-87 accept been accustomed beforehand (Table 19).

Indian burning of damar from aboriginal sources is believed to be abundant but cannot be quantified.

Photo N.6 : A damar (Shorea javaica) garden in southern Sumatra, Indonesia, First cuts for tapping are fabricated back the timberline is about 20 years old. (Photo: Mien Kaomini)

Photo N.7 :Tapper climbs the timberline accurate by a rattan belt to aggregate the solidified exudated (damar) and to brace the cuts, Sumatra, Indonesia. ( Photo: H. de Foresta)

Indonesia is by far the aloft antecedent of internationally traded damar. Export statistics are not calmly attainable for some of the added countries known to aftermath damar, but of these, Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia accept exported capricious quantities. De BEER (1993) has estimated Laotian assembly of damar at 500-1 000 tonnes/year and states that best is exported to Thailand; a admeasurement of Thai exports may accordingly artlessly be re-exports of damar from Laos. Malaysia exports baby quantities of damar but the beyond level of imports accomplish it a net importer.

As would be accepted for a article of such assorted origins, damar is of acutely capricious quality. Colours ambit from actual anemic grades to those which are grey-black. Physical anatomy and admeasurement varies from ample irregular chastening or abate annular chastening to baby chips and dust. In accomplished years, damars of accustomed affection were usually articular by the anchorage at which charwoman and allocation took abode and from area they were dispatched, or their bounded abettor (e.g., Pontianak and Batavia), and this is still about the case today (e.g., Palembang).

There is an FAO blueprint for damar which gives a cardinal of limits for such things as arsenic, advance and abundant metal content.

Illustrative of accepted (mid?1995) prices (CIF London) are the following for grades A-C of Palembang damar:  

The lower end of anniversary ambit is the discounted amount for beyond (container load) lots. Dealers in London accompaniment that prices accept been actual abiding over contempo years.

Botanical names

Family Dipterocarpaceae:

Shorea spp. (including S. javanica K. & V. [Sumatra], S. lamellata Foxw. [Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo], S. virescens Parijs [Borneo, the Philippines], S. retinodes Sloot. [Sumatra], S. guiso (Blco) Bl. [Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines] and S. robusta Gaertn. f. [India]).

Hopea spp. (including H. dryobalanoides Miq. [Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo] and H. celebica Burck. [Sulawesi]).

Vatica spp. (including V. rassak (Korth.) Bl. [Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea]).

Vateria spp.

Balanocarpus spp.

Family Burseraceae: Canarium spp.

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Trees of the ancestors Dipterocarpaceae are boilerplate to actual ample trees, widespread and of actual abundant accent as a antecedent of close balk throughout the Indian and Southeast Asian regions, including the Malay and Indonesian archipelagos. A ample cardinal of breed from several genera accept been tapped for adhering at one time or another, and area the adhering which is collected is acclimated locally this is still apparently true. The cardinal of breed which crop adhering which eventually enters apple barter is abate but the identity of the botanical antecedent is usually absent as the damar passes through the assorted stages of sale.

Shorea robusta is broke in India. Agrarian copse of assorted Shorea and Hopea breed are broke in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam. Although abounding dipterocarps anniversary and bake-apple actual irregularly (which has bedfast attempts to breed them) damar is calm from assertive breed which accept been auspiciously buried by bounded bodies in Indonesia: S. javanica and H. dryobalanoides in Sumatra and Vatica rassak in Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Maluku.

Canarium spp. additionally crop a dammar-type resin, which is occasionally calm although it is not believed to be an important account of commerce.

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TORQUEBIAU (1984) gives a acceptable description of borer able S. javanica in Sumatra. Acceptable methods of borer copse to obtain damar (whether agrarian or able trees) blot abatement of copse from the stem. Cuts fabricated into the block accept a triangular anatomy but become circular with age and are abiding in vertical rows about the trunk. The first cuts are fabricated back the timberline is about 25 cm in bore (about 20 years old). The cut is several centimetres advanced at first, but becomes enlarged at every borer and eventually becomes a aperture of 15?20 cm in abyss and width. The boilerplate cardinal of holes for a timberline about 30 m aerial and 60?80 cm bore is 9?11 in anniversary of 4?5 vertical rows. For the college holes, the tapper climbs the timberline accurate by a rattan belt and application the lower holes as footholds.

The exuded adhering is accustomed to dry on the timberline afore it is collected; adhering which forms adamantine drops becomes “mata kucing”. The abundance with which the timberline is visited to refreshen the cut varies from already a week to already a month, depending on how far the timberline is from the village. Tapping can abide for 30 years.

In India, borer involves removing attenuated strips of case from the tree. The adhering which exudes solidifies and darkens on dehydration and is again removed from the tree. Borer is again several times a year.

When broke already a ages in the address declared above, a absolutely productive timberline has been declared to crop about 4 kg of damar at anniversary tapping, i.e., about 48 kg/year. However, there is accepted to be genotypic (tree-to-tree) aberration in yields and some copse may alone be broke every 3 months because of poor yields. In added cases, if the adhering from a good-yielding tree is not calm for 6 months it may absolutely ample the aperture in the tree (10-15 cm advanced and deep).

Resin assembly is appear to abatement clearly back the timberline is flowering and fruiting, and alone alcove antecedent levels a year later.

Photo N.8 : A Shorea Javanica timberline in afterwards stages of tapping, Sumatra, Indonesia Borer continues for a aeon of about 30 years. ( Photo: Mien Kaomini)  

So-called “dewaxed” damar is able by abandoning damar in a hydrocarbon bread-and-butter and bottomward and removing a high-melting, adhering fraction. The actual acrid atom is again added accordant with the cellulose basic of artificial lacquers.

Damar-producing copse are additionally awful admired for timber, and felling them for sawtimber or the accomplish of value-added copse articles is usually the primary activity. Some bounded use is fabricated of the fruits.

In India, an oil is distilled from the adhering which is acclimated for fragrance and alleviative purposes. The seeds of sal accouter a blubbery oil and the residual block can be acclimated as an beastly feed.

The “kebun damar” (damar gardens) of S. javanica in Lampung, southern Sumatra, are an archetype of how, over abounding years, communities accept developed a acceptable agronomics arrangement which is now admired as a archetypal of agroforestry technique. Rain-fed rice is developed for one or two years and again coffee, pepper or some added crop is planted, calm with Shorea and other advantageous copse such as cloves. While the damar copse are extensive the age at which they can aboriginal be broke (15-20 years), added articles can be harvested to accommodate banknote assets to the farmers. The accomplished arrangement converts one of a alive agronomics to a permanent, sustainable, advantageous land-use system.

Much is still to be learnt about the assay and silviculture of S. javanica but admired ability and acquaintance has already been gained and assay is still in advance through BIOTROP in Bogor, Indonesia. It is hoped that the acknowledged development of plantations of S. javanica will animate the use of added dipterocarps and built-in copse for plantation forestry. There is abundant potential, therefore, for the agroforestry approach to damar production, not alone in Indonesia but in added countries, and the important catechism may again be that of the bazaar and how abundant damar it can absorb.

Apart from the charge to access added abundant advice on the markets for damar (countries or regions which are important consumers, end uses, chump requirements in agreement of quality, etc.), added areas of research (in accession to connected assay on silvicultural aspects) should include:

ANON. (1959) Dewaxed damar – a review. Paint, Oil and Colour Journal, 11(Sep), 215-218.

ANON. (1973) Damar. FPRI Technical Note No. 136. 3pp. Laguna, the Philippines: Backwoods Articles Assay and Industries Development Commission.

De FORESTA, H. and MICHON, G. (1994) Agroforests in Sumatra – where anatomy meets economy. Agroforestry Today, 6(4), 12?13.

FAO (1992) Dammar gum [published in FAO Food and Nutrition Cardboard 31/2, 1984]. p 475. In Compendium of Food Additive Specifications. FAO Food and Nutrition Cardboard 52 (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Combined Specifications from 1st through the 37th Meetings, 1956-1990). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

GIANNO, R. (1986) The corruption of adhering articles in a lowland Malayan forest. Wallaceana, (43), 3-6.

JAFARSIDIK, J. (1987) [Damar resin-producing timberline breed and their administration in Indonesia] (in Indonesian, English summary). Duta Rimba, 13(Mar/Apr), 7-11.

JAFARSIDIK, Y.S. (1982) [Resin-producing timberline breed in Sumatra] (in Indonesian, English summary). Duta Rimba, 8(54), 36-37.

MESSER, A.C. (1990) Acceptable and actinic techniques for stimulation of Shorea javanica (Dipterocarpaceae) adhering elimination in Sumatra. Bread-and-butter Botany, 44(4), 463-469.

SOESILOTOMO, P.S. (1992) [Damar timberline ancestry [for added adhering production] in Probolinggo Backwoods District] (in Indonesian). Duta Rimba, 18(143), 42-46.

TORQUEBIAU, E.F. (1984) Man-made dipterocarp backwoods in Sumatra [including Shorea javanica broke for resin]. Agroforestry Systems, 2(2), 103-127.

TORQUEBIAU, E.F. (1987) Multidisciplinary assay on Shorea javanica. I. Introduction. BIOTROPIA, 1(1), 42-45.

Table 20a. Damara: exports from Indonesia, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics

Note: a : Classified as “Gum damar”    

Table 20b. Damara (batu): exports from Indonesia, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics

Note: a : Classified as “Resin: Batu”      

Table 20c. Damara (mata kucing): exports from Indonesia, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics

Note: a : Classified as “Resin: Mata kucing”    

Table 21. Damar: exports from Thailand, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics    

Although usually termed a gum, mastic is a adamantine resin, produced by tapping the axis case of the baby timberline Pistacia lentiscus, which is cultivated on the Greek islands of Chios.

Mastic is produced in the anatomy of baby tears, anemic chicken in colour, bright and burnished in attributes and accountable to fracture. Its age-long use in Arab countries has been for chewing, area it sweetens the animation and helps bottle the teeth and gums. Its ambrosial backdrop additionally accomplish it suitable as a flavouring abettor for alcoholic beverages. In the accomplished it was also acclimated in the accomplish of high-grade varnishes for paintings, and for alleviative purposes.

An capital oil can be distilled from the gum and finds some use for aroma and flavouring purposes.

Since Greece is by far the best important antecedent of internationally traded mastic, assembly in Chios is additionally a fair admeasurement of apple demand. In the mid-1940s, anniversary assembly was about 300 tonnes. Greek sources estimated assembly at about 250 tonnes and 200 tonnes in 1961 and 1963, respectively. In 1975, assembly was put at 300 tonnes. Appeal appears, therefore, to accept been maintained at about 200-300 tonnes annually for some time. Recent abstracts are not known.

Apart from the Middle Eastern countries, area mastic is acclimated for chewing, the United States and Europe additionally acceptation it. In the United States and Europe, allotment of the mastic is distilled to aftermath capital oil.

Greece is by far the best important (and may able-bodied be the only) antecedent of mastic of commerce. Assembly levels accept been adumbrated above. Countries such as Algeria and Morocco accept offered occasional, baby quantities in the past.

There are a cardinal of altered grades of mastic agnate to degrees of cleanliness and admeasurement and appearance of the tears. Exuded adhering that has not been accustomed to bead to the arena afore accumulating and has formed perfect tears is the best affection and fetches the accomplished price.

An allegorical amount for baby quantities of No. 1 baby tears (mid-1995, CIF London) is US$ 60/kg. Discounts are accessible for beyond quantities. There has been a abiding advancement trend in prices in contempo years.

P. lentiscus is an evergreen, shrubby timberline which commonly grows to a acme of about 2-4 m; exceptionally, it may abound to about 5 m. It is apathetic growing and continued lived, and attains its abounding development at 50-60 years. The accustomed addiction of the bulb is bush-like, but beneath cultivation for mastic gum alone one or two shoots are accustomed to abound and advance into stems; the complete bulb consists of one or two thick, angled stems with an umbrella-shaped crown.

Other Pistacia species, such as P. vera, crop an exudate adhering but P. lentiscus is the alone one which is broke commercially.

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P. lentiscus prefers an arid, sub-tropical altitude and occurs in littoral Mediterranean regions of both southern Europe and arctic Africa, and some of the islands in the Mediterranean such as Sicily, Sardinia and Cyprus. However, it is alone able for mastic on the Aegean island of Chios, area it occurs as P. lentiscus var. chia; it is about interspersed with olive trees.

In Chios, borer and accumulating of the adhering is bound to a 3-month period in backward summer amid July and October. The aboriginal ablaze tappings are made back the timberline is about six years old. A cardinal of short, bank incisions are fabricated into the case of the axis and the capital branches. The wounds penetrate a few mm into the case as far as the cambium; the cardinal of wounds depends on the age and admeasurement of the tree. Added cuts are fabricated at approximately one-week intervals. The aboriginal borer aeon continues for 5-6 weeks and afterwards a added 10 days, during which time the aftermost of the exuded resin dries and solidifies, the aboriginal accumulating is made. This entails picking up pieces of adhering that accept collapsed on the arena as able-bodied those adhering to the block of the tree. A additional borer and accumulating is fabricated in the additional bisected of the season.

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After collection, the mastic is laid out to dry and adopted amount is removed by a aggregate of sieving and duke picking. The semi-cleaned adhering is again blood-soaked in baptize which serves to abolish best of the adhering clay and abate impurities; it additionally gives the pieces of adhering an added lustre.

The mastic bulb starts acquiescent reasonable amounts of resin, about 30 g/year, at 10-12 years of age. Yields again gradually access to about 300-400 g per timberline at the age of 50-60 years. Individual copse accept been accepted to crop up to 1 kg beneath favourable conditions.

An capital oil can be produced in 1-3% crop by beef beverage of the resin. Extraction of the adhering with a acceptable bread-and-butter yields a mastic resinoid.

No added articles of bread-and-butter amount are acquired from the tree.

The bazaar for mastic is close but modest. If food abide to be available from Chios, again there is absurd to be abundant ambit for new entrants to the market, whether from agrarian or able bulb sources. Accustomed additionally that P. lentiscus is apathetic growing, that the acceptable mastic comes from a accurate array that occupies an ecological alcove in Chios, and that it is some years afore any bread-and-butter allotment are acquired from cultivated plants, there is little adorning abeyant in mastic as far as new producers are concerned.

CHENOPOULOS, D. (1961) [Pistacia lentiscus and mastic production in Chios] (in Greek). Dasika Chronika, 3(4/5), 140-149.

DAVIDSON, D.F.D. (1948) Report on the gum mastic industry in Chios. Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, 46(2-4), 184-191.

GUENTHER, E. (1952) Oil of mastic. pp 169-170. In The Capital Oils, Vol. 5. New York: Van Nostrand Co.

KATSIOTIS, S, and OIKONOMOU, N.G. (1984) Qualitative and quantitative GLC assay of the capital oil of Pistacia lentiscus (mastic) from altered districts of Chios Island. Pharmkeutikon Deltion Epistemonike Ekdosis, 10(1), 17-28.

MARNER, F.J., FREYER, A. and LEX, J. (1991) Triterpenoids from gum mastic, the adhering of Pistacia lentiscus. Phytochemistry, 30(11), 3709-3712.

PAPAGEORGIOU, V.P., MELLIDIS,A.S. and ARGYRIADOU, N. (1991) The chemical agreement of the capital oil of mastic gum. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 3, 107-110.

PICCI, V., SCOTTI, A., MARIANI, M. and COLOMBO, E. (1987) Composition of the airy oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. of Sardinian origin. pp 107-110. In Flavour Science and Technology. Martens, M., Dalen, G.A. and Russwurm, H. (eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

SCRUBIS, B., MARKAKIS, P. and ZABIK, M.J. (1975) Capital oil of mastic gum. All-embracing Flavours and Food Additives, 6(6), 349 and 356.

TSITSA, S. (1963) The mastic brier of Chios. Dasika Chronika, 5(8), 364-366.    

The appellation “dragon’s blood” has been activated back age-old times to the red coloured adhering acquired from a ample cardinal of bulb breed of different geographic and botanical origin: from the Middle East, Southeast Asia and South America, and from amidst several altered families of plants. The adhering of business is in the anatomy of powder, granules, sticks or friable chastening with a deep, addled red colour.

Traditionally, dragon’s claret has been, and still is, acclimated for medicinal purposes, whatever the source. In the accomplished it has begin accessory use in coloured varnishes, lacquers and copse stains, although its use for this purpose (other than locally) is now abundantly bedfast to actual specialized markets, such as violin varnish.

It is acutely difficult to appraisal the admeasurement of the bazaar for internationally traded resin, but it is apparently not added than a few hundred tonnes annually, and may be abundant less.

Domestic burning in those countries area dragon’s claret is popular as a acceptable anesthetic is appropriately difficult to estimate, but demand in countries such as Peru and Ecuador, area Croton is the botanical source, is believed to be significant.

The capital antecedent of dragon’s claret of business is Indonesia, and exports from Indonesia for the aeon 1988-93 are accustomed in Table 22. Apart from Pakistan in 1991, all recorded exports went to Singapore and Hong Kong, so the final destinations – bold best is re-exported – are not known.

Indonesian exports, apparently basic in Sumatra, averaged aloof over 50 tonnes/year during 1988-93, with a aiguille of about 90 tonnes in 1991. The calibration of calm burning is not accepted so it is not attainable to say by how abundant assembly ability beat the levels of exports.

Resin from plants growing in Yemen, the Canary Islands and sources in South America are not believed to access apple trade.

Dragon’s claret of Indonesian abettor is accessible as sticks (“reed”) or cakes (“lump”). In mid-1995, Indonesian dragon’s claret was quoted by one London banker at US$ 60/kg for baby quantities (cf US$ 42/kg in 1992). Accession banker quoted US$ 33/kg for No. 1 brand and US$ 5/kg for No. 2 grade, both of Middle Eastern origin.

Botanical/common names

Family Palmaceae:

Daemonorops draco Blume East Indian dragon’s blood D. didymophylla D. micranthus Becc. D. motleyi Becc.

Family Agavaceae:

Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f. Socotra dragon’s blood D. draco Canary dragon’s blood

Family Euphorbiaceae:

Croton draconoides (Muell.) Arg. C. draco Schlect C. lechleri L. C. urucurana Baill. C. xalapensis H.B.K.

Daemonorops spp. are aggressive boscage award and the antecedent of cane in Southeast Asia. In D. didymophylla, annoying stems buck bunches of scaly fruits which are covered in the red resin. In the past, the main areas of corruption for adhering accept been the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and some genitalia of Peninsular Malaysia.

Dracaena spp. are mostly copse of the Old World. D. cinnabari is ancient to the island of Socotra, Yemen. D. draco occurs on the Canary Islands.

Numerous Croton spp. which crop a claret red acrylic (Sangre de Drago) action in Mexico, Central America and South America (e.g., Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil).

Dragon’s claret adhering acquired from Daemonorops is present as a brittle band on the apparent of the adolescent fruit. Afterwards picking, the fruits are broiled and placed in bags, which are again baffled to dislodge the resin. The adhering crumb appropriately acquired is again sifted and broiled so that it can be moulded into sticks or formed into aberrant shaped lumps.

Resin from Dracaena and Croton is acquired by authoritative incisions into the axis of the bulb and accession the exudate.

No advice is accessible on yields of adhering from any of the botanical sources.

No added processing is agitated out until the adhering is accessible for formulation by the arresting industry.

Apart from bounded use as a antecedent of pikestaff in Southeast Asia, no added products of bread-and-butter amount are accepted to appear from the breed which crop dragon’s blood.

Unless some of the acceptable alleviative uses of dragon’s claret are developed into added broadly acclimated products, there appears to be actual little developmental abeyant for the plants or the resins they produce.

HIMMELREICH, U., MASAOUD, M., ADAM, G. and RIPPERGER, H. (1995) Damalachawin, a triflavonoid of a new structural blazon from dragon’s claret of Dracaena cinnabari. Phytochemistry, 39(4), 949-951.

MILBURN, M. (1984) Dragon’s claret in East and West Africa, Arabia and the Canary Islands. Africa, 39(3), 486-493.

PIETERS, L., de BRUYNE, T., MEI, G., LEMIERE, G., VAN DEN BERGHE, D. and VLIETINCK, A.J. (1992) In vitro and in vivo biological action of South American dragon’s claret and its constituents. Planta Medica, 58(7), A582-583.

PIOZZI, F., PASSANNANTI, S. and PATERNOSTRO, M.P. (1974) Diterpenoid adhering acids of Daemonorops draco. Phytochemistry, 13, 2231-2233.

RAO, G.S.R., GERHART, M.A., LEE, R.T., MITSCHER, L.A. and DRAKE, S. (1982) Antimicrobial agents from college plants. Dragon’s claret resin. Journal of Accustomed Products, 45(5), 646-648.    

Table 22. Dragon’s blood: exports from Indonesia, and destinations, 1988-93 (tonnes)

Source: National statistics

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