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Authentic and Afflicted bottles of Bienvenues Batard-Montrachet. Can you analyze the absolute one? Answer at the basal of the pagePhoto, address of winefraud.com

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Counterfeit wines are a multi-billion dollar affair in the world’s wine industry. The botheration takes abounding altered forms – from misattribution of origins and vintages to counterfeiting of rare, collectible wines. If you are a austere wine collector, it is about assertive that at some point you accept been offered or purchased afflicted wines.

Recently I sat bottomward with Maureen Downey, one of the world’s foremost experts on wine fraud, afflicted wine and accomplished wine authentication, to analyze how wine artifice has become a billion dollar additional botheration about the world. Dubbed “the Sherlock Holmes of Wines,” Maureen Downey is an absolute able on accomplished and attenuate wine and wine accumulating management. Over the aftermost two decades, Ms. Downey has alone inspected hundreds of millions of dollars’ annual of accurate and afflicted wine. She advises the world’s top collectors in purchasing, affairs and managing their collections with her firm, Chai Consulting, founded in 2005.

JM: What do you appraisal is the accepted bulk of collectible wine and alcohol collections both in clandestine calmly and in restaurants and bars?

MD: If we alone accede the bulk of wine that’s in able wine accumulator all over the world, we can annual for billions of dollars. Add in all the wines in clandestine collections, and currently in sales channels in bell-ringer warehouses, and you accept billions more.

JM: What allotment of those collections are acceptable to be fabricated up of afflicted goods?

MD: This is abased aloft breadth and aback the wines were purchased. If collectors don’t accept age-old wines or they accept alone purchased anon from actually acclaimed vendors or the absolute producer, the likelihood of afflicted is acutely abundant lower. However, if collectors accept purchased accomplished and attenuate wine in the accessory bazaar – at bargain or from retailers and brokers who use a accessory bazaar antecedent for the wine – in the aftermost 20 years, they actual acceptable accept purchased afflicted bottles. Abnormally if they accept been purchasing bays wines in the accessory market, or if they are audience of the affliction offenders. The face bulk of afflicted wines in apportionment calmly exceeds several billion dollars.

JM: Is this predominantly a botheration with wines or does it accommodate alcohol as well?

MD: Alcohol are apish akin added frequently than wine. The alcohol industry had attacked the issues of counterfeiting and anti-fraud aegis abundant added actively than has wine. Allotment of that acumen is that alcohol firms are about larger, accumulated firms, and accept abundant bigger per-bottle revenues to be able to action the issue. We get account consistently about afflicted alcohol causing illness, akin death. We see ample spirit brands apish – including illegally refilling bottles – all over Asia and eastern Europe, akin in resorts in Mexico.

JM: What anatomy does the counterfeiting of wines take? Is this a case of misdating vintages for example; i.e., substituting accepted vintages for beneath accepted ones, out and out artifice breadth bottom wines are actuality anesthetized off for collectible wines, or are their added kinds of artifice demography place?

MD: The capital forms of counterfeits accommodate refilling accurate bottles and re-creating bottles to attending like the accurate adaptation they represent. The added adjustment is authoritative what we alarm “unicorns,” which are bottles that abide alone in the apperception of the actor and the actuality who is adverse abundant to abatement for the betray and buy the bottle.

JM: How austere a botheration is the refilling of 18-carat bottles with bottom wines and spirits?

MD: Refilling is a actual austere botheration and one about all the accepted anti-fraud measures that producers are employing do annihilation to assure against. In fact, some of their efforts will accomplish counterfeiting their articles easier in the future.

Almost all the anti-fraud techniques currently accessible are cosmetic. Typically, they absorb a bottle’s packaging: airy ink and micro autograph on the labels or acceding a baby sticker that attaches the abridged to the glass. None of these distinct layer, corrective anti-fraud efforts are able solutions. They are artlessly feel-good; Band-Aid responses actuality activated to the broad anguish that is wine fraud. Corrective solutions do actual little to assure the customer adjoin refilling and the reselling of bottles, nor producers adjoin actuality counterfeited.

Selling abandoned bottles of big-ticket wine is a huge business on eBay. Sadly, abounding restaurants and hotels that advertise actual high-end wine do not ensure the bottles are physically destroyed already consumed. Without this happening, abject agents can accomplish a ample ancillary assets affairs the empties.

Counterfeit ample architecture bottles of Domaine de la Romanée-Conti. In 1945 DRC alone produced 750ml bottles.Photo, address of winefraud.com

JM: You accept declared ahead that producers are abashed to accompany counterfeiters for abhorrence that it will accident their cast value. Can you busy on this?

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MD: Abounding of the producers that are actual awful apish are either French or their U.S. brands are managed by French nationals. Unfortunately, abounding times the French affliction added about acumen than they do about putting bad guys abroad and acclimation the problem. It’s a actual adverse absoluteness that we accord with, in actuality this “discretion” has led the FBI to adjudge to stop advancing wine artifice cases, because akin aback they begin counterfeiters and victims the producers accept banned to go afterwards them.

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JM: What about consumers? Do you acquisition that abounding wine collectors are abashed to about accept that they had been duped?

MD: There are actually altered types of consumers. The bodies who tend to appoint me are confident, they appetite to accomplish abiding that what the bubbler is the absolute thing. They do not appetite to be ripped off or allotment counterfeits with their accompany and family. They apperceive there’s no aberration amid accepting ripped off by a wine merchant, a banal abettor or an art dealer. Artifice is artifice – no bulk the medium.

Far too abounding consumers, however, are aloof to affairs afflicted wine because they are “friends” with, or trust, the bell-ringer affairs them. These buyers affliction added about advancement that accord and continuing to be allotment of the “insider network,” than they do about accepting ripped off. Or they are too ashamed to accept they were bamboozled and are abashed to advance the fraud.

JM: What about the use of crooked additives? Would you accede such practices as an archetype of wine artifice or is this an altogether altered matter?

MD: There are so abounding types of artifice complex with wine. While actionable additives, and akin abacus in abnormal grapes, be they the amiss anthologized or origin, or wine attenuated in from a amiss vintage, will all aftereffect in wine that can be alleged afflicted – these are not my focus. We focus on accomplished wines that accept been refilled, recreated, and which are fabulous in that they were never made.

I additionally don’t accord abundant with IP infringement. IP Contravention is huge in Asia breadth bodies accomplish article that looks like the absolute affair but accomplish it carefully amiss abundant that it is not actually a afflicted product. This is a huge allotment of the afflicted wines botheration that producers accept to action – but it is not my focus. I accord with cogent the absolute from fake, and attention consumers aggravating to buy the absolute thing.

JM: In the U.S. who is primarily amenable for advancing and prosecuting cases of wine and alcohol fraud? Is it the FBI, bounded authorities or added agencies?

MD: The bounded ascendancy is in allegation and again (usually for beyond cases) the FBI. Unfortunately, the FBI has chock-full actively investigating wine artifice cases afterwards years of accepting a committed abettor ambidextrous with the issues of wine artifice and counterfeits. Too abounding times aback they accept appear beyond a bearings breadth they accept articular the actor and the victim, but neither the producers of the wines nor the victims are accommodating to appear advanced to acquiesce case of the crime. The FBI assuredly assured that they were crumbling their assets on advancing wine artifice cases. So, in the end the customer will lose because victims were either too abashed or too ashamed to angle up adjoin these criminals.

JM: Do you accede wine and alcohol that accept been damaged in floods or fires allotment of the botheration with wine and alcohol fraud?

MD: The artifice that surrounds the reselling of wine and alcohol that accept been damaged in floods and fires is a huge problem. Typically, abounding deliver companies and allowance companies appetite to accomplish abiding that they aerate their acknowledgment on these damaged appurtenances by reselling the wines. Akin if they acknowledge the accident in their primary bargain of the damaged goods, it is about consistently the case that in the additional transaction the abettor or the reseller that purchased the damaged appurtenances does not acknowledge that accident aback they resell them.

For example, afterwards Hurricane Katrina I witnessed the bargain of a lot of actual high-end damaged wines from the Emeril Lagasse restaurants. The bottles looked accomplished cosmetically, but they had been subjected to calefaction spikes which has bantam and damaged all the bottles. The wine central had, at best, a actual abbreviate shelf activity in which it could be consumed. Akin if drinkable, it would be a bald apparition of the abundant wine’s potential.

These were all valuable, age aces wines: aboriginal growths, top burgundies, new apple icons, including Penfolds Grange, Screaming Eagle and Harlan. The day afterwards the deliver bargain we saw a flood of offers activity out to restaurants and retailers who buy accessory bazaar wines with actually no acknowledgment from the sellers that the bottles were damaged. In my opinion, this is fraud, and it’s abominably a aggressive blazon of artifice that we see all over the world. Sadly, profiteers dump damaged wines on the accessory market, abnormally arising markets like Asia.

JM: What happens to afflicted wines and alcohol that accept been articular as actuality counterfeit? Are these destroyed?

MD: NO – they are put aback into circulation, to be purchased by the abutting biting victim.

In fact, 99% of the time aback we analyze a afflicted canteen of wine, the bell-ringer will alone acknowledgment the money to the client if the client signs a non-disclosure acceding and allotment the canteen to said vendor. Sadly, best often, all that bell-ringer does is about-face about and resell the bottle(s) to the abutting biting victim. It has become a cottage industry – they booty aback a canteen that was purchased 10 years ago, for 20% of the accepted bazaar bulk – pay aback the victim at his acquirement bulk – and again they resell at accepted bazaar value. They accomplish a additional profit. It’s a abundant business model, if you can beddy-bye at night!

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At the end of the blur “Sour Grapes” a brace hundred bottles of the abominable actor Rudy Kurniawan’s claimed account are destroyed. Akin admitting he awash tens of bags of bottles, the alone bottles that accept anytime been clearly destroyed, are these 330 bottles. These bottles, from his clandestine accumulating of wines, which were not anytime sold, are the ones we see actuality ashamed in the film. That leaves the blow out there to be bought and sold. The afflicted wines Rudy sold,  roughly $500 actor in value, are still in circulation.

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In acknowledgment to this amaranthine accumulation of fakes we’ve developed a solution, the Chai Vault, which we apprehend will advice alleviate this bearings by allotment consumers to acquirement alone vetted, accurate bottles.

JM: How should the archetypal customer assure themselves from purchasing afflicted wines and spirits? Are there assertive signs that they should be attractive for?

MD: There are a lot of things the archetypal consumers can do to assure themselves. Aboriginal and foremost, get and abide educated.

We started Winefraud.com as an online ability to empower consumers and vendors alike. We appetite wine buyers to apperceive what to attending for and what to avoid. Akin a little bit of apprenticeship in this breadth goes a continued way. One of the best important things to bethink is to buy alone from the best acclaimed vendor(s), and to beacon bright of vendors who are accepted to accept a history of affairs afflicted wine or who accept a abstracted attitude aback it comes to actuality and the vetting of wines they are selling. On Winefraud.com we accept account of abundant vendors you can trust, as able-bodied as a banish of vendors we advance consumers be alert of. We appetite to advice consumers analyze who the acceptable guys are, while absolution them apperceive who – in our assessment – they should avoid!

Purchasing alone absolute from producers and their absolute agents, or purchasing bottles certified in the Chai Vault will ensure alone authentic, vetted bottles will be purchased.

We are additionally hosting one of a affectionate training courses for consumers about the apple on the intricacies of wine authentication. For added advice on these courses go here.

JM: What should you do if you doubtable some of the wines and alcohol in your accumulating may be counterfeit?

MD: Able-bodied of advance you should acquaintance the Chai Consulting aggregation to audit your bottles and abate your fears and concerns. We will accredit all accurate bottles in the Chai Vault and actualize Formal Letters on ambiguous and afflicted bottles to advice bodies accept accomplishment for bad purchases.

For the aftermost two years we accept been training authenticators all over the apple to be certified and accountant application all my techniques and methods. They accept admission to my database athenaeum to actuate actuality and provenance, so that no bulk breadth you are in the apple there is a Chai Adjustment accomplished authenticator to advice with all your affidavit and ancestry questions.

Maureen Downey analytical affirmation in the Rudy Kurniawan case, from the blur Sour Grapes.Photo, address Maureen Downey/winefraud.com

JM: What should producers do to ensure that their wines and alcohol are not actuality apish or that aboriginal bottles are not actuality abounding with bottom liquids?

MD:

Chai Vault blockchain based band-aid not alone advance account of bottles in warehouses, it can additionally clue a canteen through the administration chain, giving producers aplomb that consumers are alone anytime adequate able bottles of their wines.

Managing the accumulation alternation is key to producers acquisition counterfeiting. By creating a solid administration tracking system, Chai Vault acceptance can certificate to producers how abounding of their bottles end up in the gray market, and akin how continued bodies are befitting wines (by examination captivated certificates).

Currently, producers apply a lot of corrective anti-fraud to accomplish it adamantine to appropriately charm their bottles. For accessible reasons, best of these capacity are secret. So secret, that they are not accepted by merchants, vendors and the consumer. Best people, akin professionals, accept no abstraction what to attending for to accredit bottles application these anti-fraud solutions. What is actual alarming is that we are already seeing afflicted versions of the antifraud accessories – airy ink and micro writing-printed, for example, on aerial end afflicted wines.

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Since abounding producers accept gone abroad from the beautiful, but costly, bowl columnist assembly and accept confused to agenda printing, their labels are now abundant easier to counterfeit. Accepted anti-fraud methods are artlessly not able-bodied enough, and can advance to afflicted versions actuality fabricated to supplement afflicted bushing bottles.

It baffles me that some vendors abide to abutment vendors who accept been complicit, or grossly behindhand in affairs afflicted wines. Abounding of these bad actors adumbrate abaft ignorance, but you cannot be both an able bell-ringer of accomplished and attenuate wines, and apprenticed of basal affidavit skills. Those are mutually absolute options.

JM: Can you assure adjoin wine and alcohol counterfeiting/fraud?

MD: There is no allowance action that covers adjoin purchasing counterfeit, illegally alien or baseborn wine. Consumers accept about been bootless in suing insurers because of such purchases. Allowance companies assure the artefact adjoin damage, not that you accept purchased an accurate product. For added advice on how to assure a wine accumulating go here.

Therefore, the alone able affair to do is to accomplish abiding that what you acquirement is authentic. The alone way to do that is to apperceive your vendor, to accept the bottles vetted above-mentioned to purchase, or to acquirement Chai Vault certified bottles. If you accept bottles that you’ve ahead purchased, get those bottles authenticated, and if you accept ambiguous bottles – seek recourse and accomplishment for bad purchases.

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JM: There accept been several contempo cases of boundless wine fraud. Hardy Rodenstock comes to mind. The Rudy Kurniawan case complex hundreds of millions of dollars. You were heavily complex in apprehension that fraud. Can you acquaint us a little added about it and your own role?

MD: I formed with the FBI for four years above-mentioned to the Kurniawan arrest, as able-bodied as with Bill Koch’s analysis team. Already Rudy was arrested, I additionally formed with the Department of Justice, abnormally in the sentencing appearance of the Kurniawan case. I able several reports, which were important to the sentencing. Ultimately, victims accustomed $28.5 actor in restitution. Of that $28.5 million, $15.5 actor was a absolute aftereffect of the letters I able for the DOJ.

Since 2008, I accept formed actual carefully with the FBI against the acknowledged case of several wine fraudsters, including John Fox of Premier Cru, and a few added crooks. I accept akin gone clandestine for the FBI, cutting a wire and all, acceptable in the analysis of fraudsters. The FBI is, however, abundantly balked at this point because we accept had some actual high-profile cases that were altogether laid out, but never went anywhere.

JM: How abounding added Rudi Kurniawans are out there in the accomplished wine market?

MD: Who knows. Rudy was abundantly prolific, and awful adjourned by Acker Merrall & Condit, as able-bodied as by abounding of their top audience and “best friends” through loans that got to Rudy – abnormally – through the bargain house.

I do not anticipate anyone on Rudy’s calibration can appear in the accountable future. Too abounding bodies are watching, including producers.

What we do have, is a accomplished lot of actual adult new counterfeiters, in Europe, cranking out afflicted versions of contempo absolution of all sorts of wines. We are seeing that counterfeiters are affective abroad from bearing alone the accomplished end wines and are more creating mid-tier bulk ambit bottles. The added trend that we are currently seeing, is that counterfeiters are authoritative contempo vintages so that they don’t accept to anguish employing apocryphal crumbling techniques to bottles.

JM: What about counterfeiting of lower priced wines? How big a botheration is this affectionate of fraud?

MD: Crooks either accomplish lots of cheaper fakes, or a few actual big-ticket ones. Recently, French authorities baldheaded a few altered afflicted rings that afflicted a huge bulk of wines – from aerial end to bazaar level. Up to 20% of the Cotes du Rhone assembly for all of 2016 and 2017 was counterfeit. Addition huge aspersion hit the better bottlers in Bordeaux, as well. In addition case, 10 actor bottles of Spanish wine were labeled as Provencal rosé. In Asia – lots of access akin wines are apish all the time, and some of the counterfeits begin do not akin accommodate grape product. While these affect U.S. companies and brands, in the U.S. the capital affair is college end counterfeits.

JM: Thank you.

Answer

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